close1 W1S1 [kləuz US klouz] v
2¦(move parts together)¦
3¦(shut for period of time)¦
4¦(stop operating)¦
6 close an account
7¦(in money markets)¦
8 close a deal/sale/contract etc
9¦(offer finishes)¦
10¦(make distance/difference smaller)¦
11¦(make something unavailable)¦
12 be closed
13 close your doors (to somebody)
14 close your mind to/against something
15¦(hold something)¦
17 close ranks
18 close the book on something
Phrasal verbs
 close down
 close in
 close something<=>off
 close on somebody/something
 close something<=>out
 close up
 close with somebody/something
[Date: 1200-1300; : Old French; Origin: clos, past participle of clore 'to close', from Latin claudere]
1.) ¦(SHUT)¦ [I and T]
to shut something in order to cover an opening, or to become shut in this way
= ↑shut
≠ ↑open
Would you mind if I closed the window?
She closed the curtains.
Let me do the car door - it won't close properly.
Beth closed her eyes and tried to sleep.
She heard the door close behind her.
to move the parts of something together so that there is no longer a space between them
Anne closed her book and stood up.
also close up
if a shop or building closes, or you close it, it stops being open to the public for a period of time
≠ ↑open
British Equivalent: shut
The shops close at six.
Harry usually closes the store completely when he goes on vacation.
4.) ¦(STOP OPERATING)¦ [I and T]
also close down
if a company, shop etc closes, or you close it, it stops operating permanently
= ↑shut down
We have reluctantly decided to close the factory.
The shop closed down some time last year.
5.) ¦(END)¦ [I and T]
to end or to make something end, especially in a particular way
close sth with/by etc
I will now close the meeting by asking you to join me in a final toast.
close with
The movie closes with an emotional reunion in Prague.
closing remarks
(=something you say at the end of a speech)
In her closing remarks, the judge urged the jury to consider the facts only.
6.) close an account
to stop having and using a bank account or other financial account
My husband closed all my credit card accounts without even asking me.
7.) ¦(IN MONEY MARKETS)¦ [I always + adverb/preposition]
to be worth a particular amount of money at the end of a day's ↑trading (=the buying and selling of shares ) on the ↑stock exchange
close at
The dollar closed at 64p against the pound.
close up/down
Their shares closed 27p up
(=worth 27p more)
8.) close a deal/sale/contract etc
to successfully agree a business deal, sale etc
to finish on a particular date
= ↑end
Our special offer closes on June 3.
to make the distance or difference between two things smaller
an attempt to close the gap between the rich and poor
close on
The other car was closing on us fast.
to make taking part in an activity or using an opportunity no longer possible
Bidding for the painting will close on Friday.
The country has now closed its borders to all foreign nationals (=will not let foreigners in) .
The legislation aims to close a lot of legal loopholes.
12.) be closed
if a subject is closed, you are no longer willing to discuss it
It was a regrettable incident but I now consider the matter closed.
13.) close your doors (to sb)
to stop operating permanently
In 1977 the Skyfame Aircraft Museum closed its doors to the public for the last time.
14.) close your mind to/against sth
to refuse to think about something
She wanted to close her mind to the outside world.
15.) ¦(HOLD SOMETHING)¦ [I always + adverb/preposition, T]
if someone's hands, arms etc close around something, or are closed around something, they hold it firmly
close (sth) around/round/over etc sth
Her left hand closed over his arm.
She reached for the keys and closed her hand tightly around them.
16.) ¦(WOUND)¦ [i]also close up [I and T]
if a wound closes, or if someone closes it, the edges grow together again or are sewn together
The surgeon closed the incision neatly.
17.) close ranks
a) if people close ranks, they join together to protect each other, especially because their group, organization etc is being criticized
b) if soldiers close ranks, they stand closer together
18.) close the book on sth
to stop working on something, especially a police operation, because it is not making any progress
Detectives had closed the book on the Hornsey Murders case three years previously.
→↑closing date, closing time,close/shut the door on sth atdoor, close your eyes to sth ateye1 (16)
close down phr v
1.) close sth<=>down
if a company, shop etc closes down or is closed down, it stops operating permanently
Paramount closed down its London office in 1968.
2.) BrE to stop broadcasting radio or television programmes at the end of the day
BBC 2 closes down at 12:45 tonight.
close in phr v
1.) to move closer to someone or something, especially in order to attack them
The snake closed in for the kill.
close in on/around/upon etc
enemy soldiers closing in on them from all sides
2.) if the night, bad weather etc closes in, it becomes darker or gets worse
The sun had set and dusk was closing in.
3.) if the days close in, they become shorter because it is autumn
close off [close sth<=>off] phr v
to separate a road, room etc from the area around it so that people cannot go there or use it
The roads into the docks were closed off by iron gates.
close on / [close on sb/sth] phr v
1.) to get nearer to someone or something that is moving in front or ahead of you
The patrol car was rapidly closing on us.
2.) AmE to successfully arrange a ↑loan, especially in order to buy a house
close out [close sth<=>out] phr v
1.) to finish in a particular way
The bond market closed out the week on a strong note.
2.) if a store closes out a type of goods, they sell all of them cheaply
We're closing out this line of swimwear.
close up phr v
1.) close sth<=>up
if a shop or building closes up or is closed up, it stops being open to the public for a period of time
The resorts are all closed up for the season.
2.) close up shop
to stop doing something for a period of time or permanently
When it rains, there is no alternative but to close up shop.
3.) if a group of people close up, they move closer together
4.) close sth<=>up
if a wound closes up or if someone closes it up, the edges grow together again or are sewn together
The scar is closing up nicely - it'll soon be time to take the stitches out.
5.) to become narrower or to shut
The flowers close up at night.
Occasionally the channel widened then closed up tight again.
6.) to refuse to talk to someone about something
The moment I said I was a police officer, everyone would close up like a clam.
close with / [close with sb/sth] phr v
1.) to agree a business deal with someone
It was such a good offer that I closed with him on the spot.
2.) literary to move towards someone in order to fight with them
WORD CHOICE: close, shut, lock, turn/switch off
In many contexts, the verbs close and shut can be used in exactly the same way : Please close OR shut the gate. | The windows were all closed OR shut. |She closed OR shut her eyes. |The store closes OR shuts at 7.
!! Use close for a road, border, or airport : All the crossing points on the border have been closed (NOT shut).
!! Before a noun, use closed : a closed door (NOT shut door)
!! You cannot say 'close someone somewhere'. Use shut or lock to say that someone is put in a room or building and cannot get out : They shut her (NOT closed her) in her bedroom. | He was locked (NOT closed) in a cell.
Use switch off or turn off with electrical things : Will you turn off (NOT close) the TV? | I switched off (NOT closed) all the lights.
close 2
close2 W1S1 [kləus US klous] adj comparative closer superlative closest
2¦(near in time)¦
3¦(likely to happen)¦
8¦(competition/election etc)¦
9 close relation/relative
10¦(very nearly bad)¦
12 keep in close contact/touch
13¦(work/talk together)¦
14¦(with little space)¦
15 close/you're close/that's close
16 close to the bone
17 close, but no cigar
18 too close for comfort
19 close to home
20 at close quarters
22¦(unwilling to talk about something)¦
23¦(unwilling to spend money)¦
24 a close shave
25 close work
26 close vowel
[Date: 1200-1300; : Old French; Origin: clos, from Latin clausus, past participle of claudere; CLOSE1]
1.) ¦(NEAR)¦
not far from someone or something
= ↑near
If you need to buy bread or milk, the closest shop is about a mile away.
close to
Susan sat on a chair close to the window.
I don't mind where we go on vacation as long as it's close to a beach.
His eyes were small and close together .
There are several accounts of dolphins living in close proximity to humans (=close to humans) .
The victim had been shot at close range (=from very close) .
2.) ¦(NEAR IN TIME)¦
near to something in time
close to
It was close to one-fifteen a.m.
close together
Our birthdays are quite close together.
seeming very likely to happen or very likely to do something soon
close to doing sth
The two countries are close to signing a peace agreement.
We're close to clinching the deal.
close to death/tears/despair etc
The old dog could barely whimper and seemed close to death.
The prosecution's main witness was close to tears as she described the events of that night.
4.) ¦(LIKE/LOVE)¦
if two people are close, they like or love each other very much
My brother and I are very close.
close to
I felt closer to Rob that evening than ever before.
Fiona and I have always been close friends .
5.) ¦(SIMILAR)¦
very similar to each other
close to
When I saw Henry with another woman I felt something close to jealousy.
Fitt was the closest thing to a socialist in the party.
Their newest model bears a close resemblance to (=is very similar to) that of their rival competitor.
6.) ¦(CAREFUL)¦ [usually before noun]
looking at, thinking about, or watching something very carefully
take/have/get a close look (at sth)
She lifted up Jenny's silver medallion to take a closer look.
keep a close watch/eye on
(=watch someone or something very carefully)
Don't worry, I'll keep a close eye on the kids.
You could have improved your answers by closer attention to detail.
if a number or amount is close to another number or amount, it is not much higher or lower than it
We don't know the exact figures, but about 10,000 might be a close approximation (=close to the actual figure) .
close to
Inflation is close to 7 percent.
finishing or being played, fought etc with both sides almost equal
It was a close game that could have gone either way.
a close second/third etc
(=a finishing position in a competition that is very nearly second, third etc)
The result is too close to call (=so close that it is impossible to know who will win) .
9.) close relation/relative
a member of your family such as your brother, sister, parent etc
≠ ↑distant
The wedding was attended by close family only.
used when you have only just managed to avoid something bad, dangerous, or embarrassing happening
'Phew, that was close ,' Frank said as he swerved to avoid the cyclist.
a close call/thing/shave
(=a situation in which something dangerous, embarrassing etc almost happens)
United had a close shave when Liverpool almost scored.
11.) ¦(ALMOST)¦
very nearly getting, finding, or achieving something
close to
At this point, the investigators were closer to the truth than they realized.
12.) keep in close contact/touch
if two people keep in close contact, they see, talk to, or write to each other often
Text messaging enables people to keep in close contact at all times.
relating to a situation in which people work well with each other or talk to each other often
He retained very close links with France throughout his life.
What we need now is closer cooperation between the club and supporters.
with little or no space around something or between things
The horses are always eager for exercise after the close confinement of the stables.
The shoe is a close fit (=there is no space around the foot) .
I find it difficult to read such close print (=with letters printed so close together) .
15.) close/you're close/that's close
spoken used to tell someone that they have almost guessed or answered something correctly
'I reckon he must be about thirty-eight.' 'Close - he was forty last week.'
16.) close to the bone
if something someone says is close to the bone, it makes you feel uncomfortable or offends you, especially because it is about something you do not want to admit is true
17.) close, but no cigar
spoken used when something someone does or says is almost correct or successful
It was close, but no cigar for the Dodgers as they lost to the Reds 4-3.
18.) too close for comfort
if something that happens is too close for comfort, it is near enough to make you feel nervous or afraid
From somewhere too close for comfort came the sound of machine-gun fire.
19.) close to home
a) if a remark or criticism is close to home, it makes you feel uncomfortable because it is likely to be true
His comments struck unpleasantly close to home.
b) if something unpleasant happens close to home, you are directly affected by it
It's one thing seeing riots on TV, but when they happen so close to home it's a different matter.
20.) at close quarters
if something happens or is done at close quarters, it happens inside a small space or is done from a short distance away
The troops had been fighting at close quarters.
21.) ¦(WEATHER)¦
BrE uncomfortably warm because there seems to be no air
The weather that night was hot and close, with a hint of thunder in the distance.
22.) ¦(UNWILLING TO TALK ABOUT SOMETHING)¦ [not before noun]
unwilling to tell people about something
= ↑secretive close about
You're very close about your work, aren't you?
23.) ¦(UNWILLING TO SPEND MONEY)¦ [not before noun]
not generous
close with
You won't get a penny out of Jack - he's very close with his money.
24.) a close shave
when the hair on someone's face is cut very close to the skin
25.) close work
work that involves looking at or handling things in a very skilful, detailed, and careful way
After years of close work, she could hardly see a thing if it was over a yard away.
26.) close vowel
technical a close vowel is pronounced with only a small space between the tongue and the top of the mouth
>closeness n [U]
She had never had the physical or emotional closeness that she needed.
play your cards close to your chest atcard1 (14)
close 3
close3 W2S3 [kləus US klous] adv
1.) not far away
= ↑near
Come a little closer, so you can see better.
Her father lives quite close by .
They were sitting close together on the couch.
A variety of good restaurants and cafés are close at hand (=very near) .
James heard footsteps close behind him.
Ronnie sped off into the distance, with his brother's car following close behind .
stay/keep close
We must all stay close.
hold/draw sb close
(=hold someone against your body)
He drew her close to him.
2.) close up/up close/close to
from only a short distance away
Now that I could see him close up, I saw that he was very attractive.
3.) close on sth/close to sth
spoken used to talk about a number, amount etc that is almost exact, but not completely
a voyage of close on 2000 miles
4.) come close (to doing sth)
a) to almost do something
I tell you, I was so mad I came close to hitting her.
She came so close to the finals she must have been bitterly disappointed to go out now.
b) to be almost as good as someone or something else
It's not as good as his last movie, but it comes pretty close.
5.) a close run thing
BrE a situation in which the people competing with each other are almost equal, so neither of them is more likely to win than the other
The upcoming election looks likely to be a close run thing.
6.) close on the heels of sth
very soon after something else
come/follow close on the heels of sth
Yet another scandal followed close on the heels of the senator's resignation.
7.) near to the surface of something
An electric razor doesn't really shave as close as a blade.
8.) run sb close
BrE to be almost as successful, skilful etc as someone else
Last season United ran them close both at home and away.
sail close to the wind atsail1 (6)
close 4
close4 [kləuz US klouz] n
1.) [singular] formal
the end of an activity or of a period of time
At the close of trade, the Dow Jones index was 1.92 points down.
The monsoon season was drawing to a close (=ending) .
The event came to a close (=finished) with a disco.
Finally the meeting was brought to a close by the new chairman (=he ended the meeting) .
2.) [C usually singular] BrE
the area and buildings surrounding a ↑cathedral
close 5
close5 [kləus US klous] n [singular]
BrE used in street names for a road that has only one way in or out
Take a left turn into Brown's Close.

Dictionary of contemporary English. 2013.

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